Have you ever attended a lecture, understood every word, then someone asks you what it was about, but you can’t explain it?
You are not alone. many people struggle to transfer what they have learnt in theory to real life. You may understand that you have to kick a football at a specific spot to make it go to the top left corner, but you still can’t bend it like Beckham. Can you tell I am not up to date with football?
Maybe you heard a colleague explain how to do a fancy formula on your spreadsheet, but then you go to do it on your computer and the numbers all come out wrong. This is because transferring knowledge to actual applications is really hard.
First off, there is nothing wrong with reading books. Books are the source of endless knowledge. The problem is that just reading is not enough to get good at something.
Try reading how do a triple somersault before the first time you get on a diving board and see what I mean.
Transfer is being able to apply knowledge or skills you have to other situations.
Transfer is why a plumber who has never been to your house can fix your sink, they have seen similar problems before. Not the exact same, yet they can transfer their existing skills and fix the new problem.
Explaining a concept using an analogy is also Transfer, you are using your knowledge of one thing to explain another.
Transfer is difficult.
Young cites studies where it has been found that university psychology students who learnt psychology at school level perform no better than students who started for the first time at university. Young says this is because the high school knowledge has not transferred well to university level.
Overcoming Transfer with Directness
Directness is Young’s solution to the difficulties of Transfer. Directness means learning in as similar a way as the one you will actually use the knowledge or skill in.
Directness works for 2 reasons:
- The closer your practice is to the real situation you will use the skill, the less Transferring needs to be done. Writing well-researched essays with citations is much more likely to prepare you for writing academic papers, than writing in a diary will.
- Learning by doing exposes you to subtle details that you can’t get from theory. When driving, you may understand that you need to find the biting point to move into first gear, but you can’t learn how the biting point feels by reading about it, you’ve got to get behind the wheel and drive!
Tips for Direct Learning
Don’t just read about doing something, do something.
So if you want to program apps, build an app.
If you want to learn carpentry, build a chair.
If you want to climb a mountain, start climbing.
Get stuck into the situations you will use the skill for.
If you want to learn french, go to France and don’t speak English (Young did this, with 4 languages in one year) .
This method of learning is scary, but it forces you to get good fast.
It also helps you see where you’re going wrong through feedback (a principle we will look at later). A phrase book can tell you how to say specific phrases, one at a time, but knowing when to say each phrase is much more difficult.
Some things you can’t practice in real life. Training fighter pilots in the most dangerous manoeuvres in real planes every time would result in a lot more dead pilots. So fighter pilots train in safe simulators that mimic real life.
The key to a good simulation is having the same level of challenge and the same cues to act, as the real thing. If you have those, then you can forgive slightly low-budget graphics or sound effects.
The skill itself is what really matters.
The Overkill Approach
Aim for a level of challenge you feel you aren’t ready for.
If you aren’t ready you will have to do your best just to be able to do it.
Testing gives you feedback, which helps you improve faster.
If you find the test easy, you need to try something harder. If you keep failing in the same way, you know what to drill later (another principle we will learn soon).
Take an exam you don’t feel you could pass yet.
Play a song you haven’t memorised yet, for an audience.
This is another scary method, but it is backed by research, pushing yourself to your absolute limits in practice has been shown to separate top-performers from the middle of the pack. You will get used to the discomfort.
To learn about the rest of the principles of Ultralearning see the rest of the series here.
Please let me know any projects you want to undertake in the comments below.